Earthquake Resistance, Ferrocement Earthquake Resistant Structures, Mumbai, India
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Resistance to Earthquake By Ferrocement Structures
 - Energy absorbing
 - Resistance even at large deformation - large    forces 
 - Sustains large deformation
 - Does not collapse even at great force
 - May deform greatly but can be repaired mostly
 - Only extreme condition required to be demolished    after earthquake occurs at low cost.
 - Most important and significant, above all    practically no loss of life.
Earthquake resistance of Ferrocement Buildings
 - Ferrocement building will shake like jelly and    take  its position again after earthquake
 - Ferrocement building may get deformed but will     not collapse
 - Mostly deformed Ferrocement building can be    repaired easily at low cost.
 - It is rarely required to be totally dismantled.
 - There is rarely loss of human lives and least    damage to movable property.

 Ferrocement structures were untouched by onslaught of Earthquake Richter scale  7.2  – 7.4. whereas R.C.C. structures collapsed.

 Ferrocement structures are the need of the day.
Ferrocement earthquake resistant structures
 In order to prevent loss and damage to property running into Billions of Dollars and loss of invaluable  lives, construction of Ferrocement Structures should be taken up immediately.
 Reason Mexico experience
 The strong earthquakes that occurred in Mexico in 1999 twice Richer scale 7.2 & 7.4. The Richter scale  is logarithmic, and therefore one degree more doubles the intensity of the phenomenon. These  earthquakes destroyed or severely damaged thousands of houses, hundreds of schools and churches  and took many lives. The Ferrocement structures such as school, all houses, the class room laboratory,  the largest auditorium, all the bridges and small dams that have been designed and constructed were  untouched.
 The above single reason should be sufficient to begin with the Ferrocement constructions in Earthquake  Zone.
 At the same time, research experiments and latest design development can be taken up.
 Ferrocement is highly ductile and energy absorbing material.
 is the most efficient material to resist any disaster such as earthquakes, floods, fire, cyclones, enemy,  bombardments etc. It has high strength to weight ratio. It is ductile, resilient, energy absorbing better  as compared to RCC. When put under load it develops cracks much after crossing elastic limit. Further  several cracks develop up to further limits and after this on further loading these cracks widen till the  sample will yield totally. It is because of this property a ferrocement structures frame will not collapse  like RCC and therefore there will be least loss of life and property. Ferrocement structures do not  collapse but get deformed. A large number of such structures as compared to RCC can be easy to  repair. The debris formation will be the least.
 which collapsed on 11th September 2001 due to terrorists attack,would have collapsed in a different  way, if constructed with ferrocement technology. The impact of aircraft strike would have caused  deflection of structures about 10ft. and restoration after several swings. The aircraft might have been  trapped in the wire mesh network of structures rather not pierced into it. The debris of the structures  would have been trapped in the wire mesh system in the columns, beams, floors, slabs and would not  have fallen down/ with negligible fall. This would cause the least human life loss and enabled the  occupant. Now since the technology is sufficiently developed, it is possible to
 construct such structures for earthquake resistance also.
 We are informing about the performance of Ferrocement structures at different locations as below:
  INDIA: -
 Ferrocement structures constructed on small scale in Bhuj, Saurashtra and Ahmedabad have  performed very satisfactorily with no crack development at all. Ferrocement structures  constructed  in  Orissa under direction of HUDCO, have withstood fury of cyclone very  satisfactory.
  CHINA: -
 A precast ferrocement building (G+4) resisted earthquake better than expected. The building was  constructed in 1977, size 19.8 x10 mtrs, total floor area 1000sq. meters. Since last 15years we  have  no further information about earthquake resistant building in China.
Prof. Alonso Fernandez, Mexico, in his recent e-mail has informed us as below:-
 ……………Sometimes the earthquakes are stronger, such as two that occurred during 1999 of 7.2 and 7.4  degrees. As you remember, the Richter scale is logarithmic, and therefore one degree more doubles  the intensity of the phenomenon.
These earthquakes destroyed or severely damaged thousands of  houses, hundreds of schools and churches and took many lives. I am pleased to report that the school,  all houses, the class room laboratory, the largest auditorium (My Paper in Ferro-6), all the bridges and  small dams that we have designed and constructed were untouched. I am convinced that the geometry  of the design helps, but also the elastic nature of ferrocement, that fact that our structures are  monolithic and that they are almost completely of ferrocement and do not combine different materials,  which necessarily behave differently under this natural phenomenon. These factor are important in  preventing damage to our constructions. I should add that several years ago one of my colleagues  happened to be walking in front of a 100-m2 auditorium which we had built when an earthquake took  place, and he saw that the deformations of the building resembled a jelly when it is carried on a plate,  and then recovers its initial form and dimensions when set on the table. …………….
 FERROCEMENT: Material to resist earthquake
 1)  Ferrocement is thin section high strength structural material highly waterproof, crack formation  resistant,energy absorbing material.
2)  It is manufactured with high cement content, low water cement ratio around 0.4, wire mesh  layers, light structural steel, admixtures mainly silica fume super plasticizers, non-metallic fibres,  particularly when ferrocement is cast insitu.
3)  Ferrocement has high strength to weight ratio. Therefore self-weight of ferrocement structure is  very less as compared to RCC. The earthquake forces at nodal points of ferrocement structures  are less accordingly. Therefore the damage and devastation shall be very less.
4)  Ferrocement structural members such as beams, floors, columns develop first crack at high  value of force reasonably above the elastic point. On further loading more cracks are formed,  the same are widened till yield takes place. This point is much larger than the elastic point. At  this stage the structure will not collapse but it will deform highly. This development in the  structure shall not cause loss of life, heavy damage. The intensity of injury to the people shall be  less. The debris formation will be the least. It will be easy to extricate the injured people from  the damaged structures.
5)  In view of wire mesh layers and light structural steel as reinforcement in the skin of beam and  column, ferrocement structural frame develops high strength as well as it has high energy  absorbing capacity.
6)  Self-weight of ferrocement water tank on top of the building is less than 50% of similar RCC  tank. Therefore damaging force is less.
7)  Apart from the above earthquake resistant qualities, ferrocement is very much durable since it is  crack formation resistant material. It is better waterproof. Crack formation begins to take place  after crossing elastic limit reasonably. After this, crack widening takes place at further increase  of load. When the load is released the cracks close on their own.
 Ferrocement beams, columns are constructed with ferrocement as a skin on the periphery surface.  These skins consist of layers of wire mesh, weld wire mesh, HTS wires, MS flats, etc. The core consists  of high strength concrete. Some times it is hollow as being done in Mexico. This arrangement increases  bending moment, shear, torsion highly. The crack formation can be delayed further by addition of  fibres on the surface if feasible. In ferrocement beams and columns MS flats, rings, structural  reinforcement in the form of flats angles etc. and round bars, if required after this all, are welded at  each and every crossing. Therefore there is induced resistance to deflection during fabrication stage  itself.

 Other features are such that there is high torsion strength and shear strength capacity during  fabrication itself. Therefore ferrocement building structures are highly energy absorbing, resilient and  ductile.

 Ferrocement slab about 20 to 25mm thick consist of grid of MS flats, wire mesh layers on top and  bottom. Weld wire mesh, HTS wires can be used in case thickness is increased.

 Ferrocement structure has properties to face effectively reversal of stresses in the columns and beams  of frame.

 RCC beams and columns loaded upto yield and then strengthened with ferrocement showed  strength  higher than original strength of beams and columns. Some work in the field has also been  done. Many  research and experiments to retrofit and strengthening of walls have been carried out  since last 15  years.
 Ferrocement structures
 Highrise buildings
 Inbuilt Ferrocement Structural Formwork
 Ferrocement scores over R.C.C.
 Ferrocement structurals score over Steel  Structurals
 Ferrocement plated RCC structures
 Horizontal And Vertical Extension Of RCC  Buildings
 Water StorageTanks Underground  Overhead  Tower
 Repairs, Rehabilitation Retrofitting
 Mini structures
 Corrosion resistance
 Earthquake resistance
 Disaster resistance
 Ferrocement - The best fire resistant
 material of construction
 Rainwater harvesting
 Elevation Pergola Cladding
 Vehicular bridges
 Foot bridges
 Irrigation Structures
 Swimming pools
 Ships, boats, barges, docks
 Ferrocement Furniture
Ferrocement structures | Highrise buildings | Inbuilt Ferrocement Structural Formwork | Ferrocement scores over R.C.C. | Ferrocement structurals score over Steel Structurals | Ferrocement plated RCC structures | Horizontal And Vertical Extension Of RCC  Buildings | Water Storage Tanks, Underground, Overhead, Tower | Repairs, Rehabilitation Retrofitting | Waterproofing | Mini structures | Corrosion resistance | Earthquake resistance | Disaster resistance | Roofing | Rainwater Harvesting | Elevation Pergola Cladding | Vehicular bridges | Foot bridges | Irrigation Structures | Swimming pools | Ships, boats, barges, docks
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